Apple announced its first major new hardware product in years, Apple Watch, in September 2014. It had three key features: a precise and customizable timepiece, an intimate way to connect and communicate, and a comprehensive health and fitness companion. It has since evolved into the Apple wearable of today centered around health and fitness.
● Swappable bands
● Premium materials
● Integrated heart monitor
● Activity tracking and alerts
● 40mm and 44mm models
● Cellular models
● Siri integration
● Spring 2015 first release
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The Apple Watch launched in the spring of 2015 with three distinct models, several bands, and software that emphasized communication. Only one of those elements, bands, remains a key part of the lineup today. Apple has since evolved the wearable into a device centered around fitness, with communication playing a secondary role.
Apple Watch Features
The Apple Watch has seen a few design changes over the years, but all have shared similar characteristics. The device runs watchOS, an operating system built specifically for the tiny watch screen. The Digital Crown, changeable watch bands, and an OLED screen have persisted throughout each generation.
Bands use a simple hook and sliding mechanism to attach and secure the band in place. Apple offers a range of bands, but third-party manufacturers also make custom bands using Apple's template. Similar to the era of iPod cases, then iPhone cases, watch bands have exploded into their own micro-business.
Every generation has used the same band latches and sizes. This continued even when the device moved to a larger display in the fourth generation because the watch's physical size did not change. Pressing one of the buttons on either side of the casing releases the band.
Apple often introduces new colors and designs for existing watch bands, but it rarely brings about new designs or materials. In 2020, Apple announced a line of "Solo" bands without a fastener. Apple designed these bands to stretch over the hand. Users must therefore order them to size.
The Digital Crown is based on conventional time-setting crowns from analog watches. Apple set out to re-create this type of analog control for the digital era, leading to the Digital Crown. It rests on conductive liquid metal, allowing the crown to turn without the need for more complex wiring for signals.
The Digital Crown acts as a home button and a scroll-wheel for navigation. A long press will invoke Siri, and a double press will switch back to the last app.
Embedded in the flat side of the crown is a conductive plate. It serves as part of the circuit from wrist to finger during an ECG on Apple Watch Series 4 and later. You can perform the measurement using the ECG app that is pre-installed on the device.
An update in watchOS 7.2 made it possible for ECG to detect atrial fibrillation at higher heart rates of up to 150BPM. Previously, the ECG app would not work if the user's heart rate was too high.
Each generation of Apple Watch includes various technologies targeting activity monitoring. The heart-rate sensor and accelerometer both track movement and activity throughout the day. Apple Health's Activity Rings display daily progress for three goals: a target exercise goal, calories burned, and hours where a user has gotten up to move.
Apple Watch allows users to share their activity rings between themselves inside the Activity app. This app gives users medals based on continued habits and closing of rings. It also includes a social aspect, allowing users to challenge each other. One initiative called "Apple Watch Connected" allows gyms to reward their members based on Activity app performance.
Family Setup lets a Family Group organizer set up a cellular Apple Watch for a family member without a dedicated iPhone. Children in the household get their own phone number for each Watch, allowing them to keep in touch even if the kids don't have phones.
Family Setup lets parents specify with which contacts children can communicate. It can give parents automatic location notifications, so they can keep tabs on where their family is. Kids can also use their wearable to track activity.
Schooltime Mode is a feature that helps kids stay focused, limiting available features and activating Do Not Disturb during the school day, while giving them a unique watch face.
Family Setup requires a fourth-generation device with cellular capabilities.
Force Touch Display
Prior to 2020, every generation of the smartwatch had included a Force Touch Display. This allowed users to press "into" the content to open up contextual menus. If this sounds familiar, it's because it was the fore-bearer to the now-deprecated 3D Touch.
Because of its small screen and limited interactions, Force Touch on this device stuck around one year longer than on iPhones. However, watchOS 7 and the 2020 hardware updates removed it.
As a part of Apple's push for services, the company released a new subscription called Apple Fitness+. It launched in December 2020 and is available on the Apple TV, iPad, and iPhone as an app.
Users can launch a workout from the device app or from the Apple Watch. There are several workouts available and thanks to the connectivity of Apple's devices, workout metrics from the Watch will appear on the screen.
The Fitness+ service is constantly updated with new workout videos from many instructors. The workouts range from simple cooldowns to difficult core exercises.
Apple Watch History
Before Apple Watch was done, it would require the disparate skills of countless Apple staff and also outside experts. Designer Marc Newson was brought in to help, as was Angela Ahrendts, who would become Apple's senior vice president of Retail and Online Stores.
Unusually, though, it appears that this product really began with one person's idea. Jony Ive, then Apple's chief designer, reportedly began working on the Watch in 2011. He's said that it took three years to go from idea to product. And CEO Tim Cook has separately said that development began after the death of Steve Jobs.
However, the origin of the idea could really have begun as early as 2005. That was when Ive and his design team say they became serious about machining, the kind of technology that ultimately produced Apple's unibody manufacturing. And to explore how to do this, they visited watch manufacturers.
"We started researching watch companies just to understand machining metals, finishing metals, product assemble," design team creative lead Doug Satzger said in Leander Kahney's book, "Jony Ive: The Genius Behind Apple's Greatest Products."
Then two months after Jobs died in 2011, the New York Times reported that Apple was researching a wearable computer.
"A person with knowledge of the company's plans told me that a 'very small group of Apple employees' had been conceptualizing and even prototyping some wearable devices," wrote journalist Nick Bilton. "One idea being discussed is a curved-glass iPod that would wrap around the wrist; people could communicate with the device using Siri, the company's artificial intelligence software."
"The brain that brings all these things together is the smartphone, which after all is really the first wearable computer," he continued. "Researchers note that the smartphone is almost never more than three feet away from its user."
Still, if Ive says it started in 2011, that does also mean that the Apple Watch was officially Apple's first entirely new product since its co-founder's death. With the industry speculating how Apple could fare without Jobs, it was both a product and a way to demonstrate Tim Cook's direction for the company.
If the aim was to show that Apple could still innovate the way it had, Ive says that he found the process "humbling." This is a man who worked on the iPhone, literally the most successful product ever made, and yet the Watch was harder.
"Even though Apple Watch does so many things, there are cultural, historical implications and expectations," Ive said in 2014. "That's why it's been such a difficult and humbling program."
He meant how reinventing the phone had been a lot less complicated than reinventing the watch. Technology is known for having its fans, and especially Apple, but watches and watch collection is an entire other world with its history, its rules, and its obsessives.
Ive may have been one of them. When the Apple Watch came out, it was seen by some horologists as an affront. Much as phone manufacturers said technology firms couldn't just walk in and make a phone, so Apple was seen by some as arrogant for launching a watch when it knew nothing about them.
Except when interviewed by leading watch publication Hodinkee, Jony Ive was asked about watches and reportedly recounted an anecdote about his buying an Omega Speedmaster Professional in the 90s.
That would be like telling how you bought a Mac SE/30, or perhaps a Mac IIfx –– machines that were expensive, classic, and are still beloved. If that didn't tell horologists that Ive was serious, then his background is at least why the Apple Watch leverages watch ideas like complications and a crown.
Apple Watch Series 6 and Apple Watch SE
In September 2020, Apple launched the Apple Watch Series 6 and also the more family-friendly Apple Watch SE. The latter was aimed at families, and in particular children, both from its lower price of $279, and its Family Setup features.
Those let a parent set up a Watch for a child without buying them an iPhone, too. And it lets those parents stay in touch with their kids by including location notifications.
If you instead had from $399 to spend on an Apple Watch Series 6, you could have the same features –– but also much more. It features an always-on display that is significantly brighter, a faster processor, and blood oxygen tracking.
Again, Apple pushed the health features, with the latest watchOS 7.2 improving the ECG functions.
Apple Watch Series 5
Tell us Apple isn't king of detail –– and then watch the Apple Watch Series 5 launch presentation from September 20, 2019. The key stand-out feature of this model was its always-on display.
And while it wasn't always possible to see that an Apple presenter was wearing a Watch, when they clearly were, it was also apparent which one. Every single presenter was wearing an Apple Watch Series 4 up to the moment the always-on feature was revealed.
Thereafter, every single presenter for the rest of the launch was wearing a Series 5.
That always-on feature was a surprise. It had been predicted to come eventually, and it had been wanted from the start, but it was a surprise that Apple had managed it quite so soon.
There were other new hardware elements, such as an emergency call function, and a compass which improved walking directions in Apple Maps. And there were new software options too –– as for the first time, Apple Watch owners could now download apps directly from the App Store.
Apple Watch Series 5 started at $399 for the aluminum GPS-only one. For LTE, it was from $499. And there was again an Apple Watch Edition, this time once more with a ceramic chassis.
Apple Watch Series 4
The overt red dot from the previous generation, signifying LTE, was dropped in favor of a more subtle red circle on the Apple Watch Series 4. That was the least of the changes made for this generation.
This model was as close to a reinvention of the Watch as Apple had made up to then. On the inside, it featured an ECG monitoring sensor and a faster processor.
And on the outside, it was bigger. Gone were the original 38mm and 42mm sizes. In were 40mm and 44mm.
For both these "small" and "large" sizes, the difference of an extra 2mm plus reduced bezels meant that the screen should show a lot more information. Alongside all of the familiar Watch elements like the round face, there came new corner Complications.
Apple Watch Series 4 was launched on September 12, 2018, and prompted a lot of people to sell on their old Watches to get one. They needed from $399 for the non-cellular version and $499 for LTE.
Apple Watch Series 3
Released in September 2017, the Apple Watch Series 3 was the first to include cellular capabilities, meaning users could make phone calls from it without their iPhone. LTE Watches had a distinctive red dot in their digital crown, otherwise, there were no visible hardware differences.
There was an audible one, though. For the first time, Siri on Apple Watch could answer you verbally.
If the Series 1 and Series 2 models were aimed at fixing issues with the original version, chiefly speed, then the Series 3 felt like something new. Significantly, the Series 3 is still on sale as of 2021 where neither the Series 4 nor Series 5 are.
That said, the only versions of the Series 3 you can buy now are with Sport Bands with limited colors. At launch, you could get silver, space gray, or gold finishes in aluminum. Or silver and space black in stainless steel.
What you couldn't get was either ceramic or the original gold. There was no Edition model for two Watch generations.
By this stage, Apple had gone all-in on the idea that Apple Watch was for health and fitness. It always had features for these, but arguably Apple originally positioned it as more of a fashion accessory.
That may not be true. Apple certainly targeted the fashion market with its gold Apple Watch Edition, and Apple certainly dropped that model. But Apple was entering a brand new market with the Watch, and even Apple needs to make a splash sometimes.
Whether the Watch really was a fashion statement, or whether it was Apple making a statement to the world that it was now in the timepiece game, Series 3 concentrated on health and fitness.
Apple Watch Series 1 and 2
The "Series 0" name began to appear in 2016 when Apple launched Apple Watch Series 1 and Apple Watch Series 2. Of these models, the Series 1 was chiefly the same as the original but with a faster processor.
The original Watch had an Apple S1 processor, while the Series 1 had an Apple S1P and the Series 2 an S2P.
Both S1P and S2P were said to be around 50% faster than the original Apple Watch. The Series 2 Watch included GPS, plus a brighter display, and a degree of waterproofing.
Those features aside, there seemed to be little significant difference in the 2016 Apple Watch releases. They came with watchOS 3, and the latest operating system they can run is watchOS 6.
There were, though, very noticeable changes in pricing. There was no gold Apple Watch Edition for Series 1 or 2, for instance, though there was an Edition in ceramic.
Plus, there was now an Apple Watch Nike version. This included a Nike sport band, which could be bought separately.
With its various bands and different materials, Apple Watch Series 1 started at $269. The Series 2 was sold from $369 in aluminum and from $549 in stainless steel.
First Generation/Series 0
As early as 2012, the word was out about a forthcoming Apple Watch –– or, as it was always called then, the iWatch. At one point, Apple was said to be working with Intel to build its smartwatch.
Apple wouldn't say yes, and it wouldn't say no. There was as much speculation then about a watch as there is now about an Apple Car, but infinitely less published information. Few leaks happened, and while there were patents as early as 2007, none were recognized as being for the watch until much later.
Next, in 2013, Apple hired Kevin Lynch as what they described as vice president of technology, but really was the head of the Apple Watch project. If he were the head, though, Jony Ive remained the heart.
And he showed so on September 4, 2014, when, before the Watch was even launched, he privately predicted extreme success. Without directly quoting him or his reported profanity about it, the New York Times said that Ive believed Switzerland's watch industry was going to be in trouble.
"We've really gone through enough to call it a day," he said to laughter from the audience. "But we're not quite finished yet. We have one more thing."
Apple actually had two more things, with the second being a performance from U2 that didn't lead to quite the reception the Watch got.
Tim Cook spent 46 minutes detailing the new Apple Watch, which included a slightly vague promise that it was to be released early the next year. It would ultimately go on sale with pre-orders on April 10, 2015.
Those pre-orders consisted of three models, which Apple called "collections." There were:
- Apple Watch Sport
- Apple Watch
- Apple Watch Edition
The sport version had an aluminum casing, while the "Apple Watch" was made from stainless steel.
Each came in either 38mm or 42mm sizes, with correspondingly different screens, but were otherwise functionally identical. All included the Digital Crown, for instance, and all of them would only light up their screen when you turned your wrist to see the time.
Otherwise, they really only differed in their materials –– and price. While the Sport model started at $349, the Edition was made from 18-carat gold and cost north of $10,000.
Apple also shipped many different designs of band, including ones by Hermes Paris. Consequently, you could buy Apple Watch Hermes editions.
These were all very much version 1 designs, except Apple didn't call them that. It didn't call them anything but Apple Watch, yet all three of these would retrospectively come be known as Series 0.